May 25, 2017

Repeated geographical discoveries (Part 2)


Among the Kermadec Islands, which are located in the northeast of New Zealand, the most northern of them has two names – Raul and Sunday. First, its name comes from the French vice-admiral D’Entrecasteaux Bryurni more in 1793. At that time, the island was named for Joseph Raoul steering, and the entire group of islands was named one of the captains of the ships – Captain Juan Kermadec. However, apparently, due to lack of awareness, three years later, Raoul Island reopened English captain Raven. As his ship “Britannia” sailed to the island on Sunday, the island was renamed – Sandy, that is to say “Sunday”. That opinion, justice is done, and the vast majority of maps the island is marked by his first name. It belongs to New Zealand with the whole group Kermadec Islands.

Time to talk about the North Pacific. It is here, in the Bering Strait, connecting the Pacific and Arctic oceans, and separates Eurasia and North America, were located the maritime boundary between the two countries – Russia and the United States. It is in this area, close enough to each other are two islands – American Little Diomede and Big Diomede Russian. It is also significant that, in addition to the state border, they are divided and even the so-called linear change of dates. Because, at the hour when on Big Diomede, there comes a new day, you can overcome all 4,160 meters to the American islands, and be in the “yesterday” and vice versa. Border guard service in this area takes place in the hellishly difficult circumstances, because this area is known for not only its harsh cold, isolation from the mainland and the sea rough, but the impenetrable thick fog, enveloping most of the year the island. It is because of fog and both islands have been opened twice.

In 1728, before the ship “St. Gabriel” command, which sailed the expedition of Vitus Bering, opened an unknown before this island called the Island of St. Diomede, because it was dedicated to this holy day, which happened discovery. However, this discovery was forgotten, and, in 1811, during the circumnavigation of navigation Russians O. Kotzebue, on ships “Enterprise” and “Rurik”, two islands have been seen in the Bering Strait. The larger island located west, became an island Ratmanova and smaller, located to the east, was named Island Kruzenshtern. After it appeared that Kotzebue “duplicated” the discovery of Bering, not considered the second island in the mist, both islands have received their old name Bering received additive “Large” and “Small” Diomede.

Double-opened and the island of Jan Mayen, which is located in the north of the Atlantic Ocean, near the island of Greenland. Laura owns its discoverer Captain Hudson made a discovery in 1607 However, the information has remained obscure. Reopening made in 1611 Dutch explorer Jan Mayen, whose name and received the island.

Incidentally, the Pacific archipelago of Samoa opened even twice, but three. The first discovery made Dutch traveler J. Roggeveen in 1722, well after the island re-opened in 1768 by L. Bougainville. In 1973, French explorer La Perouse discovered the archipelago for the third time.

It should be noted that not only the individual islands and archipelagos open again. In addition, this fate is not passed and entire continents. Recall at least North America, for the first time open long before the official opening, belonged to Christopher Columbus. The same thing happened with the continents of Australia and South America. Australia, another in 1606 was discovered by Dutch navigator Yanzonom and named New Holland. Until then the discovery was kept secret, so that the British did not seize the new land. However, the official discoverers of the continent laurels belong to them. In 1770, Australia opened the English navigator D.Kuk. However, there has not been without competition – according to some scientists, even in 1683 the mainland opened a famous pirate William Dampier.

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