May 23, 2017

Repeated geographical discoveries (Part 1)


Looking back at the history of geographical discoveries, we can see that very often the new land, open expeditions, for one reason or another for a long time afterwards it was not possible to find in the vast expanses of the ocean. As the years passed, so that there years – decades and centuries, the earth again “was”, but other sailors, and fell to the map already under completely different names. Only with time it turned out that, the “new” land was open for a long time.

Perhaps you would be interested to learn about a few such cases.

Turned their attention to the past, namely in the distant-distant 1567. That year the port of Callao, located in Peru, under the command of Captain Alvaro de Mendaña began their long journey two caravels, equipment Viceroy of the Spanish colony in Peru in order to find, at last the mysterious southern continent. The success of this expedition was interested not only the Viceroy – searching for the Southern continent closely followed and many rich Spanish grandees. The fact is that in Peru they had a huge plantations and silver mines, is constantly demanding more and more new workers, whose role is performed by the local Indians. The fate of the Indians, few people worried, it is not surprising that in the mines and plantations, they and exhausted by hard work and hunger, ill and died by the thousands. The colonialists quickly realized that a little more – and the flow of virtually free labor will dry up, and with him and runs profits. That is why in the minds of giants and lived the dream of a new continent with new, more powerful and enduring than the local Indians, people. In addition, there was an assumption that new lands can be rich in gold.

Caravelle followed westward for more than three months ahead when, finally, there was the land. Traveler’s eyes opened Low Mountain slopes are covered with dense rainforests. One could consider and large population. Mendaña discovered he was struck by the beautiful scenery and decided that finally sailed to the northern shores of the South Land, where, as expected, and was supposed to be country Ophir, where, according to legend, the biblical King Solomon scooped the gold and precious stones. Unfortunately, a mysterious land was just a small island. The island’s population is not very hospitable to receive guests, so landing here Spaniards could not. Nearby travelers saw many of the other islands that have strengthened confidence Mendaña.

Upon his return to Peru, he immediately began to tell his compatriots about the distant islands inhabited by savages, and most importantly – their treasure. However, apparently, knowing the character of the storyteller, nobody believed him. Only 30 years later, the Viceroy of Peru again sent an expedition to the Solomon Islands, an open Mendaña. The second expedition is already considerably aged captain has gone on four caravels, Driven as indispensable in the “establishment of friendly contacts” with the local population a detachment of soldiers. New expedition chose a course west along 10 m. south latitude. Soon enough Mendanya were discovered new islands, named in honor of the Spanish viceroy of Peru Marquesas. The second group of small volcanic, open during the voyage was named Santa Cruz (“Holy Cross”). However, despite the long futile search, the Solomon Islands have not been found.

Captain, all hope is dashed, found a resting place on the islands of Santa Cruz, has not completed the case throughout his life.

Since then, many expeditions from different countries for hundreds of years searched in vain for the mysterious archipelago. Travellers have been opened many new lands, but Solomon Islands, it seemed, forever lost in the vastness of the ocean. Only in 1768 a large archipelago, unmarked on any map, opened the ships of the French expedition led by Louis Bougainville. The archipelago is located east of the island of New Guinea, and, as it turned out, it was the very same mysterious Solomon Islands, which for so long and unsuccessfully sought Mendaña. Today, Solomon Islands – an independent republic.

The same thing happened with the islands of Tahiti, bred in the southern Pacific waters. Back in 1606 the island was discovered by the Spaniard Pedro de Kzheyrosom, and after his compatriots had unsuccessfully sought this beautiful land. Lost faith in its existence, geographers even made it to the list consisting of “imaginary islands”, and only in April 1768, the island was discovered by chance in the same Louis Bougainville.

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