Water – the most common substance in nature. However, 97.5% of the hydrosphere falls on salt water and only 2.5% – on fresh products, of which 2/3 accumulated in the glaciers and the permanent snow cover and 1/5 is represented by the Groundwater. Of the 35 million cubic meters. Km. Freshwater humanity uses 200,000 cubic meters. Km. (Less than 1% of total reserves), and in many areas there are tensions in water management. About 1/3 of the population lives in areas where freshwater supplies 20-40% or more of available resources.
The most difficult situation is observed in Asia, is home to more than 50% of the population, but it has only 36% of the water resources. The acute lack of clean drinking water tested inhabitants of 80 countries around the world. In many countries, water supply is already standardized.
After the hydrological classification, the countries 1000-1700 cu. m. Renewable water per year and 1 person, living under water stress conditions, and less than 1,000 cubic meters. M -. In conditions of water scarcity.
Among the largest water consumers in the world characterized the “big four” – India, China, the United States and Pakistan. Russia is one of the three biggest industrial water users.
Russian water resources are mainly represented freshwater runoff and to a lesser extent – underground. Water from the seas and oceans, brackish and salt water, glaciers and noted – future reserves.
Across the country, there are approximately 3 million intermittent rivers, streams and streams, lakes 2.7m (26,500 cu.km. Freshwater), hundreds of thousands of wetlands, Groundwater (228 cu. Km. / Year) 30 thousand. Tanks and ponds (with a capacity of 800 cu. Km.). In the Russian Federation about 1/4 stops fresh surface and groundwater world.
However, water resources are distributed across the country is very uneven. More than 71% of the flow of the river falls on the regions of Siberia and the Far East and only 8% (less than 3 cubic meters / year per person) – In the European part is concentrated in the 80% of the population’s capacity and production.
Attributable to regions with an average availability of water – Central, Ural, in southern Western Siberia, eastern Siberia and low – Stavropol, Trans-Volga, Lower Volga, Barabbas plain in Western Siberia, Baikal, Central Yakutia.
In recent years, the needs of the socio-economic development of water is taken about 2% of the available funds. Of the 67 cu. Km. Use freshwater of about 60% for industry, 20% – of the housing sector and less than 20% – agriculture.
Plants and animals live in the sea, different from plants and animals that populate the earth. Among the plants is due to algae dominate the animals -. Coral, fish, crustaceans, seals, sharks, rays, whales, dolphins and other marine organisms unequally populated. Its great richness. People use in industry, agriculture and medicine. It is necessary to make a rational use of marine resources and they do not pollute. Ocean studies are of great practical importance for navigation, fishing, and mineral exploration.
The use of the ocean can provide a great advantage, because now connecting Seaways countries and continents. This street belongs to everyone and no one at the same time. Ever-growing merchant fleet built of enormous ships, shipping almost every country in the world. The mineral and biological resources of the vast ocean. Oil, coal, ore, sand, gravel, diamonds – all these hidden water columns. Extraction of minerals from the sea floor is much more difficult than in the country, but many countries have already begun to develop under Lake Field and mainly on oil production. Fishing – one of the oldest human activities. It is a pity that the fishery has become so effective that anglers are the first to feel the limits of the marine reserves offices.
One part agar with algae extract, iodine and prepared food products (so called algae). It is also used for animal feed and as fertilizer. Research is being conducted on the use of algae such as Chlorella, tsenodesmus and other spacecraft in life support systems. Use in the kitchen to create a glorious sea menu. Prawns cooked with a milk sauce; Fish bite, compote with herbs; Stuffed with scallop meat, fried squid, grilled mussels, makrorus cooked with algae; Fried sea bream; Amberjack in tomato marinade. In addition, if today a rarity, in 10 years, these dishes every day.
Many substances are used in ocean medicine. Iodine helps in the treatment of many diseases, and sea salt used in the treatment of tumors. Since the alginic acid of algae. They are also used in medicine.
Russia is one of the top places in the world’s wildlife and wild fish stocks. Excessive hunting for strong and precious canine skins has resulted in a decline in the number of walruses, beautiful and durable coat – the cause of almost complete destruction of the fur man seals. Threw the large amount of oil a year into the sea, so that surface water. From these dying animals and plants. Significant reduction in the number of fish in the sea, and some species have completely disappeared.
Moreover, the rest on the beach, swimming – it is not only fun. The sea gives us health, strength and power.
The man began to prospective oceanic nature XX century to develop. Although it is assumed that the sea has been little studied, and its practical application – in the future.